Television Formats

Critical Studies in Television, 8:2, 2013, Special Issue on TV Formats.


Adriaens, F. and Biltereyst, D. (2012) “Glocalized Telenovelas and National Identities: A ‘Textual Cum Production’ Analysis of the ‘Telenovela’ Sara, the Flemish Adaptatioan of Yo soy Betty, la fea,’ Television & New Media, 13(6): 551-67.

Chalaby, J. K. (2010) "The rise of Britain's super-indies: Policy-making in the age of the global media market." The International Communication Gazette, 72(8): 675-693. Available at

Chalaby, J.K. (2011) “The making of an entertainment revolution: How the TV format trade became a global industry.” European Journal of Communication, 26(4) 293–309. Available at

Chalaby, J.K. (2012) “At the Origin of a Global Industry: The TV Format Trade as an Anglo-American Invention.” Media, Culture & Society, 34(1): 36-52.

Chalaby, J.K. (2015). The Format Age. Television's Entertainment Revolution. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Chalaby, J.K. (2015). "The advent of the transnational TV format trading system: a global commodity chain analysis." Media, Culture and Society, 37(3), 460-478.

Cooper-Chen, A. (2005) “A world of 'millionaires': Global, local, and 'glocal' TV game shows.” in Cooper-Chen, A. (ed) Global Entertainment Media: Content, Audiences, Issues. London: Lawrence Erlbaum: 237-251. Available at

Espinosa-Medina, H.D. & Uribe-Jongbloed, E. (2014). "A clearer picture: Towards a new framework for the study of cultural transduction in audiovisual market trades." OBS-Observatorio, 8(1), 23-48.

Espinosa-Medina, H.D. & Uribe-Jongbloed, E. (2015). "Do it, but do it dancing!": Television and format adaptations in Colombia in the 1980s and early 1990s. In K. Aveyard y A. Moran (Eds.) (2015). Transnational formats before Big Brother. Bristol: Intellect Books.

Esser, A. (2010) "Formatiertes Fernsehen – Die Bedeutung von Formaten für Fernsehsender und Produktionsmärkte." Media Perspektiven, 2010(11): 502-514. Available at

Esser, A. (2010) "Television formats: primetime staple, global market." Popular Communication: The International Journal of Media and Culture, 8(4): 273-292. Available at

Esser, A. (2013) “The format business: Franchising television content.” International Journal of Digital Television, 4(1): 141-158.,id=15405/

Esser, A. (2014). "European television programming: exemplifying and theorizing glocalization in the media", in Robertson, R. (ed.). European Glocalization in Global Context. Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 82-102.

Esser, A. and Jensen, P. M. (2015). "The use of international television formats by public-service broadcasters in Australia, Denmark and Germany", International Communication Gazette, published online Feb 2015. Available at

Esser, A., Bernal Merino, M. & Smith I. R, (eds.) (2016). Media Across Borders: Localizing TV, Film and Video Games. London: Routledge. Available at

Gutiérrez Lozano, J. F. (2010) “Regional television in Spain: the Andalusian case.” in Media History, 16, 1, pp. 115-121. Available at

Gutiérrez Lozano, J. F. (2010) “Public TV and regional cultural policy in Spain as reflected through the experience of Andalusian regional television.” in Cultural Trends, 19, 1-2, pp. 53-63. Available at

Hallenberger, G. (2002) “Fernsehformate und internationaler Formathandel.“ in Internationales Handbuch Medien 2002/2003. Hans-Bredow-Institut. Hamburg: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft: 130-137. Available at

Hetsroni, A. (2004) "The Millionnaire project: a cross-cultural analysis of quiz shows from the United States, Russia, Poland, Norway, Finland, Israel, and Saudi Arabia." Mass Communication & Society, 7(2): 133-156. Available at

Hill, A. and Steemers, J. (2011) “Big Formats, Small Nations: Does Size Matter?” in Lowe, G. and Nissen C. (eds) Broadcasting in Smaller States, Goteborg: Nordicom. Available at

Iwabuchi, K. (2003) "Feeling glocal. Japan in the global television format business.“ in Moran, A. (ed) Television Across Asia, London: Routledge, pp. 21-35. Available at

Jäger, E. and S. Behrens (2009) The FRAPA report 2009. TV formats to the world. Cologne/Hürth: FRAPA. Available at

Jensen, P.M. (2007) "Danish and Australian television: the impact of format adaptation." Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture and Policy, 124: 119-133. Available at

Jensen, P.M. (2012) "How media system rather than culture determines national variation: Danish Idols and Australian Idol compared." in Zwaan, K. & de Bruin, J. (eds.) Adapting Idols. Ashgate.

Jensen, P.M. (2013) “The Use of Format Adaptation in Danish Public Service Programming.” Critical Studies in Television, 8(2): 85-103.

Keinonen, H. (2009) “Kaverukset: Constructing a Sense of Cultural Proximity in a Finnish Adaptation of Hancock’s Half Hour.” Critical Studies in Television 4:2, 37–52. Available at

Keinonen, H. (2012). "Early Commercial Television in Finland: Balancing between East and West." Media History, 18:2, 177–189. (to General: Media globalisation, adaptation and translation theories section)

Khalil, J. (2004) “Blending in: Arab Television and the Search for Programming Ideas.” Transnational Broadcasting Studies, 13. Available at

Khalil, J. (2006) “Inside Arab Reality Television: Development, Definitions and Demystification.” Transnational Broadcasting Studies, 1, 2, 2006. Available at

Kjus, Y. (2009). "Everyone needs Idols. Reality television and transformations in media structure, production and output." European Journal of Communication, 24(3): 287-304. Available at

Koch-Gombert, D. (2005) Fernsehformate und Formatfernsehen. TV-Angebotsentwicklung in Deutschland zwischen Programmgeschichte und Marketingstrategie. München, Meidenbauer. Available at

Kretschmer, M., J. Wardle, et al. (2009) Exploitation of television formats. Available at

Lantzsch, K. (2008) Der Internationale Fernsehformathandel. Akteure, Strategien, Strukturen, Organisationsformen. (PhD dissertation) Wiesbaden, VS Verlag. Available at

Larkey, E. (2009) “Transcultural Localization Strategies of Global TV Formats: The Office and Stromberg.’ in Moran, A. (ed) TV Formats Worldwide, Intellect, pp. 187-201

Lippert, B. (2011) Telenovela Formats. Localized versions of a universal love. Göttingen, SV Sierke Verlag. Available at

McCabe, J. and Akass, K., Ed. (2013) TV’s Betty Goes Global. From Telenovela to International Brand. London, I.B. Tauris. Available at

Mikos, L. and Perrotta, M. (2012) “Travelling Style: Aesthetic Differences and Similarities in National Adaptations of Yo Soy Betty, La Fea.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 15, 1. Available at

Moran, A. (2009) "Global franchising, local customizing: The cultural economy of TV program formats." Continuum, 23(2): 115-125. Available at

Moran, A. and J. Malbon (2006) Understanding the Global TV Format. Bristol, Intellect. Available at

Moran, A. (2013) “Global Television Formats: Genesis and Growth.” Critical Studies in Television, 8(2): 1-19.

Moran, A., Jensen, P. M. & Aveyard K. (2016). Global Television Formats. State of the Art. Bristol: Intellect.

Müller, E. (2002) “Unterhaltungsshows transkulturell: Fernsehformate zwischen Akkomodation und Assimilation Transkulturelle Kommunikation.“ in Hepp, A. and Löffelholz, M. Transkulturelle Kommunikation. Konstanz, UKV: 456-473. Available at

Nkosi Ndlela, M. (2012) “Global Television Formats in Africa. Localizing Idols.” in Oren. T. and Shahaf, S. (eds.) Global Television Formats. Understanding Television Across Borders, London: Routledge. Available at

Nkosi Ndlela, M. (2013) “Television Across Boundaries: Localisation of Big Brother Africa.” Critical Studies in Television, 8(2): 57-72.

Oren. T. and Shahaf, S. (2012) (eds.) Global Television Formats. Understanding Television Across Borders, London: Routledge. Available at

Oren, T. (2013) “On the Line: Format, Cooking and Competition as Television Values.” Critical Studies in Television, 8(2):20-35.

Rivera-Betancur, J. L., & Uribe-Jongbloed, E. (2012). "La Suerte de la Fea, muchas la desean: de Yo soy Betty, la Fea a Ugly Betty." In M. Pérez (Ed.), Previously On (pp. 825-842). Sevilla: Universidad de Sevilla.

Schmitt, D., Bisson, G., and Fey, C. (2005) The global trade in television formats. London: Screen Digest. Available at:

Skovmand, M. (1992) “Barbarous TV international: syndicated 'Wheels of Fortune'.” in Skovmand, M. and Schrøder, K. C. Media cultures. Reappraising transnational media. London, Routledge: 84-103. Available at

Stehling, M. (2013) “From Localisation to Translocalisation: Audience Readings of the Television Format Top Model.”  Critical Studies in Television, 8(2): 36-53.

Szostak, S. (2013) “Format Adaptation and Craftsmanship: Interview with Polish Television Writer Agnieszka Kruk.” Critical Studies in Television, 8(2): 76-84.

Waisbord, S. (2004) "McTV. Understanding the global popularity of television formats." Television & New Media 5(4): 359-383. Available at